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๐Ÿ“™ Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and practice by Feng Liu โ€” epub download



Content: Chapter 1 Environmental Justice, Equity, and Policies --
1.1 Environmental Justice Movement 1 --
1.2 Environmental Justice Policies 5 --
1.3 Environmental Justice Analysis 10 --
Chapter 2 Theories and Hypotheses --
2.1 Theories of Justice and Equity 19 --
2.1.1 Utilitarianism 20 --
2.1.2 Contractarianism and Egalitarianism 22 --
2.1.3 Libertarianism 23 --
2.1.4 Which Theory? 24 --
2.2 Economic Theory and Location Theory 26 --
2.2.1 Externality and Public Goods 27 --
2.2.2 Welfare Economics 28 --
2.2.3 Residential Location Theory 30 --
2.2.4 Industrial Location Theory 33 --
2.3 Theories of Risk 34 --
2.3.1 Psychometric Theory 35 --
2.3.2 Expected Utility Theory 36 --
2.3.3 Cultural Theory 36 --
2.3.4 Sociological Theory 37 --
2.4 Theories of Neighborhood Change 37 --
2.4.1 Classical Invasion-Succession Model 38 --
2.4.2 Neighborhood Life-Cycle Model 39 --
2.4.3 Push-Pull Model 40 --
2.4.4 Institutional Theory of Neighborhood Change 41 --
Chapter 3 Methodology and Analytical Framework for Environmental Justice and Equity Analysis --
3.1 Inquiry and Environmental Justice Analysis 45 --
3.1.1 Positivism and Participatory Research 45 --
3.1.2 Scientific Reasoning 47 --
3.1.3 Validity 47 --
3.1.4 Causality 51 --
3.2 Methodological Issues in Environmental Justice Research 52 --
3.3 Integrated Analytical Framework 55 --
Chapter 4 Measuring Environmental and Human Impacts --
4.1 Environmental and Human Impacts: Concepts and Processes 61 --
4.2 Modeling and Simulating Environmental Risks 65 --
4.2.1 Modeling Exposure 66 --
4.2.1.1 Emission Models 67 --
4.2.1.2 Dispersion Models 69 --
4.2.1.3 Time-Activity Patterns and Exposure Models 71 --
4.2.2 Modeling Dose-Response 72 --
4.3 Measuring and Modeling Economic Impacts 75 --
4.3.1 Contingent Valuation Method 75 --
4.3.2 Hedonic Price Method 76 --
4.4 Measuring Environmental and Human Impacts for Environmental Justice Analysis 81 --
4.5 Critique and Response of a Risk-Based Approach to Equity Analysis 86 --
Chapter 5 Quantifying and Projecting Population Distribution --
5.1 Census 93 --
5.2 Population Measurements: Who Is Disadvantaged? 95 --
5.2.1 Race and Ethnicity 96 --
5.2.2 Income 99 --
5.2.3 Highly Susceptible of Exposed Subpopulations 104 --
5.2.4 Age 105 --
5.2.5 Housing 107 --
5.2.6 Education 108 --
5.3 Population Distribution 108 --
5.4 Population Projection and Forecast 110 --
5.4.1 Methods 111 --
5.4.2 Choosing the Right Method 113 --
Chapter 6 Defining Units of Analysis --
6.1 Debate on Choice of Unit of Analysis 117 --
6.2 Census Geography: Concepts, Criteria, and Hierarchy 120 --
6.2.1 Basic Hierarchy: Standard Geographic Units 120 --
6.2.2 Non-Standard Geographic Units 126 --
6.3 Census Geography as a Unit of Equity Analysis: Consistency, Comparability, and Availability 128 --
6.3.1 Hierarchical Relationship and Geographic Boundary 128 --
6.3.2 Boundary Comparability over Time 129 --
6.3.3 Data Availability and Comparability over Time 131 --
6.4 Census Geography as a Unit of Equity Analysis: Which One? 133 --
6.5 Alternative Units of Analysis 139 --
6.5.1 Based on the Boundary of Environmental Impacts 140 --
6.5.2 Based on the Boundary of Sociological Neighborhood 141 --
6.5.3 Based on the Boundary of Economic Impacts 142 --
6.5.4 Based on the Administrative/Political Boundary or Judicial Opinions 143 --
Chapter 7 Analyzing Data with Statistical Methods --
7.1 Descriptive Statistics 145 --
7.2 Inferential Statistics 149 --
7.3 Correlation and Regression 152 --
7.4 Probability and Discrete Choice Models 156 --
7.5 Spatial Statistics 157 --
7.6 Applications of Statistical Methods in Environmental Justice Studies 158 --
Chapter 8 Integrating, Analyzing, and Mapping Data with GIS --
8.1 Spatial Measures and Concepts 164 --
8.1.1 Spatials Data 164 --
8.1.2 Spatial Data Structure 164 --
8.1.3 Distance 165 --
8.1.4 Centroid 165 --
8.2 Spatial Interpolation 165 --
8.2.1 Point Interpolation 166 --
8.2.2 Areal Interpolation 167 --
8.3 GIS-Based Units of Analysis for Equity Analysis 168 --
8.3.1 Adjacency Analysis 168 --
8.3.2 Buffer Analysis 168 --
8.4 Overlay and Suitability Analysis 172 --
8.5 GIS-Based Operationalization of Equity Criteria 174 --
8.6 Integrating GIS and Urban and Environmental Models 175 --
Chapter 9 Modeling Urban Systems --
9.1 Gravity Models, Spatial Interaction, and Entropy Maximization 178 --
9.2 Deterministic Utility, Random Utility, and Discrete Choice 181 --
9.2.1 Deterministic Utility and Optimization 182 --
9.2.2 Random Utility Theory and Discrete Choice 183 --
9.3 Policy Evaluation Measures 184 --
9.4 Operational Models 186 --
9.5 Integrating Urban and Environmental Models for Environmental Justice Analysis 191 --
Chapter 10 Equity Analysis of Air Pollution --
10.1 Air Quality 195 --
10.2 Relationship between Air Quality and Population Distribution: Theories, Methods, and Evidence 199 --
10.2.1.1 Residential Location Theory and Spatial Interaction 199 --
10.2.1.2 Risk Perception and Human Response to Air Quality 200 --
10.2.1.3 Theories of Neighborhood Changes 201 --
10.3 Spatial Interaction Modeling Approach to Testing Environmental Inequity 205 --
10.3.1 Problem Definition 205 --
10.3.2 Hypothesis 205 --
10.3.3 Methods: Spatial Interaction Modeling Using DRAM 205 --
10.3.4 Index Construction and Data Preparation 207 --
10.3.5 Model Estimation 210 --
10.3.6.1 Los Angeles 213 --
10.3.6.2 Houston 215 --
10.4 Equity Analysis of National Ambient Air Quality Standards 219 --
10.4.3.1 Nonattainment Areas as a Whole 221 --
10.4.3.2 Spatial Distribution and Regional Differences 223 --
10.4.3.3 City vs. Non-City Nonattainment Areas 230 --
10.4.3.4 Major Findings 233 --
10.4.3.5 Implications for Environmental Policy 234 --
Chapter 11 Environmental Justice Analysis of Hazardous Waste Facilities, Superfund Sites, and Toxic Release Facilities --
11.1 Equity Analysis of Hazardous Waste Facilities 237 --
11.1.1 Hazardous Wastes 237 --
11.1.2 Equity Analysis of Hazardous Waste Facilities 238 --
11.1.2.1 Cross-Sectional National Studies 239 --
11.1.2.2 Regional Studies 247 --
11.1.3 Methodological Issues 248 --
11.2 Equity Analysis of CERCLIS and Superfund Sites 250 --
11.2.1 CERCLIS and Superfund Sites 250 --
11.2.2 Hypotheses and Empirical Evidence 252 --
11.2.3 Methodological Issues 257 --
11.3 Equity Analysis of Toxic Release Facilities 258 --
11.3.1 Toxic Releases Inventory 258 --
11.3.2 National Studies and Evidence 261 --
11.3.3 Regional Studies and Methodological Improvements 264 --
11.3.4 Methodological Issues 266 --
Chapter 12 Dynamics Analysis of Locally Unwanted Land Uses --
12.1 Methodological Issues in Dynamics Analysis 270 --
12.2 Framework for Dynamics Analysis 273 --
12.3 Revisiting the Houston Case: Hypothesis Testing 276 --
12.4 Discussion of Alternative Hypotheses 279 --
12.4.1 Invasion-Succession Hypothesis 279 --
12.4.2 Life-Cycle Hypothesis 280 --
12.4.3 Push Forces: Other Environmental Risks 282 --
Chapter 13 Equity Analysis of Transportation Systems, Projects, Plans, and Policies --
13.1 Environmental Impacts of Transportation Systems 287 --
13.2 Incorporating Equity Analysis in the Transportation Planning Process 288 --
13.3 Transportation System Performance Measures 291 --
13.4 Equity Analysis of Mobility and Accessibility 292 --
13.4.2 Using Accessibility for Equity Analysis 297 --
13.4.3 Empirical Evidence about Mobility Disparity 300 --
13.4.4 Accessibility Disparity and Spatial Mismatch 302 --
13.5 Measuring Distributional Impacts on Property Values 304 --
13.6 Measuring Environmental Impacts 307 --
13.7 Equity Analysis of Transportation Policies 308 --
13.8 Environmental Justice of Transportation in Court 311 --
14.1 Internet-Based and Community-Based Tools 315 --
14.1.1 EPA's Environfacts 315 --
14.1.2 LandView III 317 --
14.1.3 Environmental Defense's Scorecard (http://www.scorecard.org/) 318.


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